Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock 3.3
Definitions
Accredited stockperson

means a stockperson who is accredited by the Australian Livestock Export Corporation Ltd (LiveCorp) for the management of livestock on vessels.

Accredited Veterinarian (AAV)

means a veterinarian who is accredited under the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021 to carry out export operations in approved export programs.

Ad libitum

means that food and water is available at all times with the quantity and frequency of consumption being the free choice of the animal.

Adverse effect

means an abnormal, harmful or undesirable effect on an animal that causes anatomical or functional damage, irreversible physical changes, or increases in susceptibility to other biological, chemical, or environmental stresses.

Adverse weather

means temperature and climatic conditions (such as rain, hail, snow, wind, humidity, heat, storms, cyclones, heatwaves and drought) that either individually or in combination, are likely to expose livestock to heat or cold stress, cause injury and/or result in other unfavourable animal health or welfare outcomes.

Air export journey

means the period from the time the first animal is loaded into a crate for transport by air (be it on the approved premises, other premises used for export preparation, at the airport or other), until the time the last animal is unloaded from the aircraft at the final destination. To calculate journey length, 24 hour periods are to be recorded in a single standard time zone — such as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) — for the duration of the journey. Also see flight.

Animal

means the same as livestock.

Animal welfare

means the physical and mental state of an animal in relation to the conditions in which it lives and dies, as described in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code 2021.

Appropriate for export

means complying with all the requirements of ASEL, the importing country requirements, the Export Control Act 2020 and the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021 at the relevant stage of preparation for export.

Approved arrangement

means an approved arrangement that covers a kind of export operations in relation to prescribed livestock that is approved under the Export Control Act 2020 and the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021.

Approved export program (AEP)

means an exporter's program of activities, approved by the Secretary, for AAVs preparing livestock consignments for export or accompanying livestock consignments on ships.

Approved blood test

means an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) that detects specific pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, including pregnancy-specific protein B, on serum or plasma samples. The test must be conducted by a laboratory holding the appropriate score of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for the test.

Approved premises

means a place approved under the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021 for the pre-export quarantine or isolation of livestock for export by air.

Australian Certificate for the Carriage of Livestock (ACCL)

means the document issued by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority under Marine Order 43 (Cargo and cargo handling—livestock) 2018.

Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA)

means the authority established by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority Act 1990.

Australian Veterinary Antimicrobial Prescribing Guidelines (AVAPG)

means the guidelines for the responsible prescription of veterinary antimicrobials. They can be viewed online at: National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship (ncas-australia.org).

Authorised officer

means, for the purposes of ASEL an Australian Commonwealth Government official authorised under the Export Control Act 2020 to perform functions in accordance with Australian export legislation.

Average daily mortality rate

means the rate (percentage) that is calculated by dividing the mortality rate for each species of the consignment, by the number of voyage days. Average daily mortality rate only applies to consignments exported by sea and is to be calculated at the end of the voyage.

Certificate of health

means a government certificate, issued by an authorised officer, which states that the livestock meet the requirements of a specified importing country relating to the health status of the livestock.

Class

means the export grouping of animals based on their end use, be it feeder, slaughter or breeder. The term breeder includes any subsets of this class such as productive heifers.

Clear day
An amendment to this definition will come into force on 29 August 2024.

means a full day, being 24 hours starting immediately after midnight, not including the day of arrival to the registered establishment for export preparation or the day of loading for export at the registered establishment. Clear days apply to the animal, rather than at a whole-of-consignment level.

Competent pregnancy tester

means for cattle and buffalo, a person accredited or permitted by the relevant state or territory legislation, agency, or industry body if accepted by the state or territory, to make a pregnancy diagnosis in the particular species. Competent pregnancy testers may only diagnose pregnancy for feeder/slaughter cattle or buffalo by manual palpation. For deer, goat and sheep, a competent pregnancy tester means a person who can attest to experience and skill in pregnancy testing of the particular species.

Competent stock handler

means a person who can demonstrate that they have the requisite knowledge, skills, experience, attitude and behaviour to perform the required activity, and has the ability to manage and handle animals humanely, efficiently and capably. Supporting evidence of competency includes:

  • induction training; and/or
  • records of on-the-job training; and/or
  • recognised training and staff training registers; and/or
  • relevant experience; and/or
  • supervisor sign-off for specific tasks; and/or
  • demonstrable ability.

Accredited stockpersons and AAVs can perform the role of a competent stock handler without supporting evidence.

Consignment

means a group of livestock that are under export preparation by one exporter and are destined for export, or have been exported, from a single seaport or airport.

Cow

means a female bovine animal that has produced a calf or is over 3 years of age.

Curfew

(also known as 'empty out' time) means the deliberate and variable period of water and/or feed deprivation.

Curfew factor

means an additional percentage applied to the liveweight of curfewed animals to account for weight loss due to curfew, in order to more accurately estimate normal liveweight.

Delay

means an additional unforeseeable extension to the voyage duration above the estimated voyage length.

Department

means the relevant Commonwealth government agency responsible for the regulation of live animal exports. At the time of publication of this standard, this is the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Disembarkation

means the unloading of livestock at any overseas seaport or airport. Disembarkation commences with the unloading of the first animal and ends when the last animal is unloaded from the vessel or aircraft at the port.

Embarkation

means the loading of livestock at any Australian seaport or airport. Embarkation commences with the loading of the first animal and ends when the last animal is loaded onto the vessel or aircraft at the port.

Euthanasia

means the act of inducing death of an animal in a humane manner that causes immediate loss of consciousness and then rapid death, by a method approved under national animal welfare standards and guidelines, and model codes of practice, for the species where available.

Export permit

means a permit issued by the Secretary, or delegate, under the Export Control Act 2020 to enable the export of live animals from Australia.

Extended long-haul

means a voyage that is 31 voyage days or more in duration. See also short-haul and long-haul.

Far markets
From the ASEL 3.3 review, the definition of 'Far markets' will be removed on 3 April 2024 and will be replaced by long haul voyages

means all other destination ports not covered in the definition of near markets.

Fat-tailed sheep

means a general type of domestic sheep known for their distinctive large tails and hindquarters.

Feed

means any food intended for consumption by livestock, such as chaff, hay, pellets, or grain.

Fit to travel

means the animal:

  • can walk on its own by evenly bearing weight on all 4 legs; and
  • is free from visible signs of injury or distress or conditions likely to further compromise its health or welfare during transport; and
  • is strong enough to make the journey and is not dehydrated or emaciated; and
  • is not blind in either eye and can see well enough to walk, load and travel without impairment or distress; and
  • has had adequate access to water prior to loading.
Flight

means the portion of an air export journey that begins when the first animal is loaded onto an aircraft and concludes when the last animal is unloaded from the aircraft at the final destination airport, and includes any transit stops en route.

Hair sheep

means any sheep breed that grows hair rather than wool.

Health status

means the status of an animal with respect to animal disease and the importing country requirements.

Heat stress risk assessment (HSRA)

means an assessment performed using a heat stress model that combines weather statistics, vessel parameters and animal heat tolerance factors to determine the pen space allocation for the livestock for an intended voyage to predict the risk of mortality or heat stress.

Heifer

means a female bovine animal less than 3 years of age that has not produced a calf.

Hospital pen

means a designated area reserved for the sole purpose of special care of weak, sick or injured animals. Requirements for hospital pens can be found in Marine Order 43.

IATA Live Animal Regulations

means the document titled Live Animal Regulations published by the International Air Transportation Association as it exists from time to time.

Immature animal

means an animal that has not reached sexual maturity and is not displaying secondary sexual characteristics typical for the species such as descended testes, signs of being in heat (oestrous), udder maturity or antlers. Typically, an immature animal is yet to exhibit behavioural changes such as dominance, riding, or aggression.

Importing country requirements

means:

  • the conditions of the relevant importing country protocol; and/or
  • the conditions imposed by an importing country, any relevant import permit, dispensation or approved equivalency agreement.
Individual identification

means a method of identifying each animal in a way that is permanent or semi-permanent as to be individually identifiable for the entire period of export preparation, and the voyage or air export journey.

Land Transport Standards

means the Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for the Land Transport of Livestock published by Animal Health Australia (21 September 2012).

Linear interpolation

means a method of finding new values at positions between two data points.

The formula is: y = y1 + ((x – x1) * (y2 – y1)) / (x2 – x1)

For the purposes of ASEL, this is where x is the known value (the animal's liveweight in kilograms - Liveweight [kg]), y is the unknown value (Minimum pen area [m2/head]), x1 and y1 are the liveweight and pen area below the known value in the ASEL table, and x2 and y2 are the liveweight and pen area above the known value in the ASEL table.

For example, to find the pen area for a 23kg animal in the below example:

Liveweight (kg)

Minimum pen area (m2/head)

20

0.238

30

0.311

y = y1 + ((x – x1) * (y2 – y1)) / (x2 – x1)

  • x is the known value (23kgs)
  • y is the unknown value (i.e. the Minimum pen area [m2/head])
  • x1 and y1 are the table values that are below the known value (x1 = 20kg, y1 = 0.238), and
  • x2 and y2 are the table values that are above the known value (x2 = 30kgs, y2 = 0.311)
Minimum pen area (y)= 0.238 + ((23 – 20) * (0.311 – 0.238)) / (30 – 20)
= 0.238 + (3 * 0.073) / 10
= 0.238 + 0.0219
= 0.259

Minimum pen area for 23kg animal = 0.26m2

A graphical representation of linear interpolation is contained in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Graphical representation of linear interpolation

Image

Source: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Livestock

means the same as defined under the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021.

Loading plan

or load plan means a plan which details the number and species of livestock, where they will be placed on the vessel or aircraft and how much space they are allocated.

Long-haul

means a voyage that is 10 voyage days or more in duration, but less than 31 voyage days. See also short-haul and extended long-haul.

Management plan

means a plan approved under an exporter's approved arrangement detailing how the exporter will manage the risks associated with undertaking certain activities.

Marine Order 43

means Marine Order 43 (Cargo and cargo handling—livestock) 2018 made under the Navigation Act 2012.

MARPOL 73/78, Annex V

means the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Vessels, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating to (MARPOL 73/78). Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from vessels.

Mature animal

means an animal that has reached sexual maturity or is displaying secondary sexual characteristics typical for the species such as descended testes, signs of being in heat (oestrous), udder maturity or antlers. Mature animals may show behaviours such as dominance, riding, or aggression.

Model codes of practice

means the codes of practice for minimum welfare standards and practices for a range of livestock species. A link to the model codes of practice can be found at awe.gov.au/animal/welfare/standards-guidelines.

Mortality rate

means the rate (percentage) that is calculated by dividing the number of deaths of a species occurring during the voyage or air export journey, for each export consignment in the case of a shared vessel or aircraft, by the total number of that species loaded and multiplying the resultant figure by 100. See also average daily mortality rate.

National Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines

means the welfare standards and guidelines that provide legal requirements and recommended practices for the welfare of livestock. A link to the National Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines can be found at awe.gov.au/animal/welfare/standards-guidelines.

National Livestock Identification System (NLIS)

means Australia's system for the identification and tracing of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats.

National Vendor Declaration (NVD)/Waybill

means a declaration that a livestock owner or person responsible for the livestock signs and acts to trace an animal's movement from premises to premises throughout its life. NVDs/Waybills link the traceability of livestock from the farm to other farms, through to saleyards, transport, and processing.

Near markets
From the ASEL 3.3 review, the definition of 'Near markets' will be removed on 3 April 2024 and will be replaced by short haul voyages

means destination ports located south of latitude 15°N, east of longitude 90°E and west of longitude 180°.

Notice of Intention (NOI)

means an application made to the department by the exporter in accordance with the Export Control Act 2020 and the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021.

Notifiable incident

means an incident that has the potential to cause, or has caused a serious adverse effect to the health or welfare of animals, as outlined in Standards 5.6.5 and 6.11.1.

Notifiable mortality level

means for each species, the mortality rate or 3 animals, whichever is the greater number of deceased animals, where notification to the department is required (see Table 22 and Table 37).

Pastoral and station sheep

refers to sheep that have been sourced from the pastoral zone, as identified in Appendix A.

Portable Livestock Unit (PLU)

includes a box, platform, container or other arrangement used to form pens or stalls for the carriage of livestock by sea. Portable livestock units are required to comply with Marine Order 43, as they are 'portable equipment' under that Order. Requirements for PLUs are detailed in Appendix C and, where applicable, Standard 5.

Pre-export quarantine or isolation

means a period of quarantine or isolation of livestock prior to export, required by an importing country.

PREgCHECK (National Cattle Pregnancy Detection (NCPD)) Scheme

means the pregnancy detection accreditation program offered to members of the Australian Cattle Veterinarians group.

Preparation for export

includes actions taken from sourcing livestock through to the completion of loading those animals onto the vessel or aircraft crate.

Property Identification Code (PIC)

means a unique identification code allocated by the relevant authority in a state or territory to a block (or blocks) of land usually used for agricultural purposes.

Property of source

means, for the purposes of ASEL, the premises or farm where the livestock resided prior to transport to the registered establishment, approved premises or, for air consignments, any other premises used for export preparation.

Registered establishment

means a premises registered to prepare livestock for export under the Export Control Act 2020 and the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021.

Registered establishment occupier

means a person in whose name the registered establishment is registered. See also registered establishment.

Registered establishment operations manual

means the operations manual for a registered establishment that sets out how the premises will operate as approved under the Export Control Act 2020 and the Export Control (Animals) Rules 2021.

Registered veterinarian

means a person who is registered under the law of an Australian state or territory as a veterinarian, veterinary practitioner or veterinary surgeon.

Reporting day

means, for onboard daily reporting purposes, midday to midday local vessel time, with the exception of the first day of loading and last day of unloading, arrangements for which are described in the department's policy on reporting. For the purposes of calculating days for voyage length, see voyage and voyage day.

Spay declaration

means a declaration certifying an animal has been spayed, made by the owner or manager of the premises where the procedure was performed, including their name, contact information and signature. The declaration also contains the animal's individual NLIS identification number, date of procedure and type of the procedure.

South–East Asia

means the countries of Brunei, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

Short-haul

means a voyage that is less than 10 voyage days duration. See also long-haul and extended long-haul.

Sourced for export

means the point in time at which livestock are selected for export preparation for a consignment intending to be exported, including 'spare' animals that may also be prepared that serve as a contingency (e.g. if final weight allowances permit or if other animals under preparation are rejected). This point in time may be before or after transport to the registered establishment, approved premises or, for air consignments, any other premises used for export preparation and must be prior to commencement of any pre-export quarantine or isolation, including required period of clear days.

Transhipment

means a stop made en route to the final destination airport, and the consignment changes aircraft.

Transit

means a stop made en route to final destination airport, and the consignment remains on board or is re-loaded onto the same aircraft.

Vendor declaration

means a declaration provided by an owner or person responsible for the livestock with the required knowledge of what is being declared, attesting to factors such as an animal's residency period at a premises, or if certain non-notifiable diseases have been present on a premises where the livestock have resided. This definition does not apply to National Vendor Declarations (NVDs)/Waybills, which are defined under National Vendor Declaration (NVD)/Waybill.

Voyage

means the period from the time the first animal is loaded onto the vessel (the first day of the voyage) until the time the last animal is unloaded at the final port of disembarkation. Voyage applies to sea consignments only. See air export journey for information relevant to air consignments.

Voyage day

means each 24 hour period from the commencement of the voyage (or part thereof for the last day of unloading). Voyage day applies to sea consignments only. See air export journey for information relevant to air consignments.

Water deprivation time

means a continuous period that livestock do not have access to water. The criteria that must be included when calculating the total water deprivation time are:

  • time off water during mustering and when yarded after mustering; and
  • water curfew; and
  • all the time in transit, whether moving or stationary; and
  • any time without water after unloading, such as at a saleyard, spelling centre, transit/transfer point or registered establishment or approved premises or other premises; and
  • any time without water after unloading from an aircraft in the importing country (for air consignments only).
Wether

means male sheep castrated at an early age before secondary sexual characteristics have developed.